SOIL MICROBESLeonard van De LuytgaardenMicro-organisms are microscopic, single celled organisms that are the oldest form of life on earth. Microbial fossils have been found dating back more than 3 billion years.
The millions of microbial species are divided into six major types: Archaea, Bacteria, Fungi, Microbial Mergers, Protozoa and Viruses.

Most microbes are beneficial and are essential components in all environments. Without them, the very planet we live on could not exist.

Soil microorganisms are responsible for the formation of soil, the conversion and transfer of nutrients, the decomposition of organic matter, the degradation of pesticides and other chemicals, and the suppression of pathogens. Over the course of a microbe’s life cycle, they will add organic matter and micronutrients to the soil, improving it and the plant’s ability to take up nutrients. The more diverse and populated your substrate is the better.
Each species of microbe provides its own type of benefit, making it important to have an array of various kinds. For indoor gardens, it is important for a substrate to be rich in microbes, or the plants will not reach their full potential, as microbes are found naturally in all external environments.
Roots are most important and form the plant’s foundation, therefore a healthy substrate for the entire plant’s life cycle must be maintained. Cultivating a suitable environment for microorganisms to thrive in encourages healthy growth. Healthy roots equal healthy plants. 
Microbes can be utilised to protect the substrate from pathogens, which may be crucial in the defence and cure of disease or infection.